Guidelines for referencing

This page serves as a basic guide for authors to assist with the compliation of their reference list. The examples provided are the most occuring types of sources cited in Lexikos. Please see the relevant section or example when citing a similar source. The style/format of the referencing is a prerequisite for all articles that are published in Lexikos. Any questions regarding referencing can be directed to the editor.

A reference list may be divided into different categories, e.g.

—        Dictionaries / Other literature

—        Printed dictionaries / Online dictionaries / Other literature

—        Writing assistants / Other literature

—        Dictionaries / Digital tools / Other literature

Reference examples:


[Surname, Initials. Year. Book title. Place: Publisher.]

[Surname1, Initials1 and Initials2, Surname2. Year. Book title. Place: Publisher.]

Atkins, B.T.S. and M. Rundell. 2008. The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

Botha, W., P. Mavoungou and D. Nkomo (Eds.). 2013. Festschrift Rufus H. Gouws. Stellenbosch: SUN PReSS.

Tarp, S. 2008. Lexicography in the Borderland between Knowledge and Non-knowledge. General Lexico­graphical Theory with Particular Focus on Learner's Lexicography. Tübingen: Max Nie­meyer.

Articles/chapters in volumes or journals:

[Surname, Initials. Year. Article title. Journal name volume(issue no.): p-p.]

De Schryver, G.-M. 2003: Lexicographers' Dreams in the Electronic-Dictionary Age. International Journal of Lexicography 16(2): 143-199.

Gouws, R.H. 2018. Accessibility, Access Structures and Access Procedures. Jesenšek, V. and M. Enčeva (Eds.). 2018. Wörter­buch­strukturen zwischen Theorie und Praxis: 35-56. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Hanks, P. 2013. Lexicography from Earliest Times to the Present. Allan, K. (Ed.). 2013. The Oxford Hand­book of the History of Linguistics: 503-536. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rundell, M. and A. Kilgarriff. 2011. Automating the Creation of Dictionaries: Where Will It All End? Meunier, F., S. de Cock, G. Gilquin and M. Paquot (Eds.). 2011. A Taste for Corpora. In Honour of Sylviane Granger: 257-282. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Conference Papers:

Kilgarriff, Adam, Pavel Rychlý, Pavel Smrz and David Tugwell. 2004. The Sketch Engine. Williams, Geoffrey and Sandra Vessier (Eds.). 2004. Proceedings of the Eleventh EURALEX Inter­na­tional Con­gress, EURALEX 2004, Lorient, France, July 6–10, 2004: 105-115. Lorient: Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines, Université de Bretagne Sud.

Prinsloo, D.J. 2019. A Perspective on the Past, Present and Future of Lexicography with Specific Reference to Africa. Gürlek, Mehmet, Ahmet Naim Çiçekler and Yasin Taşdemir (Eds.). 2019. Pro­ceedings of the 13th International Conference of the Asian Association for Lexicography, ASIA­LEX 2019, Istanbul, Turkey, 19–21 June 2019: 148-160. Istanbul: Asos.

Rundell, Michael and B.T. Sue Atkins. 2011. The DANTE Database: A User Guide. Kosem, Iztok and Karmen Kosem (Eds.). 2011. Electronic Lexicography in the 21st Century: New Applications for New Users. Proceedings of eLex 2011, Bled, 1012 November 2011: 233-246. Ljubljana: Trojina, Institute for Applied Slovene Studies.

Electronic/online sources:

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. [1 November 2019].

WordNet. [1 February 2020].

Zarei, A.A. 2010. The Effect of Monolingual, Bilingual and Bilingualized Dictionaries on Vocabulary Comprehension and Production. ELT Weekly 54: 17-40. http://eltweekly. com/ELTWeekly_Issue_54.pdf


De Kind, J. 2012. Taalvariatie in het Kikongo van Angola vanuit historisch perspectief: fonologie en morfologie. Unpublished M.A. Dissertation. Ghent: Ghent University.

Hiles, L. 2009. Examples in South African School Dictionaries: From Theory to Practice. Unpublished M.Phil. Thesis. Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch.

Later editions:

Stathi, E. 2006. Greek Lexicography, Classical. Brown, K. (Ed.). 2006. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Vol. 5: 145-146. Second Edition. Oxford: Elsevier.

To appear:

Huete-García, Á. and S. Tarp. 2024. Training an AI-based Writing Assistant for Spanish Learners: The Usefulness of Chatbots and the Indispensability of Human-assisted Intelligence. (to appear)


Parker, Phil. 2013. Do You Know How Generation Z Pupils Learn? [3 April 2020].

In-text referencing:

(Surname Year: p)

(no comma after the surname; a space between the colon and the page number)


(Svensen 1993: 37)

(Tarp and Gouws 2004: 277)