The Lemmatisation of Adverbs in Northern Sotho*

D.J. Prinsloo

Abstract


Abstract: To date Northern Sotho metalexicographers have focused their attention on lemma-tisation problems in respect of the so-called main or primary part of speech categories, viz. nouns and verbs. See, for example, Prinsloo and De Schryver (1999) and Prinsloo and Gouws (1996). No attention has been given to the lemmatisation of adverbs. The latter are regarded by Ziervogel and Mokgokong (1975: 114, Introduction) as a "secondary part of speech". The treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dictionaries is marred by inconsistencies such as omissions from the macrostruc-ture, insufficient and inconsistent labelling, inferior treatment in the microstructure, under-utiliza-tion of the mediostructure and outer texts, and reflects a lack of a strategy of selection of items for lemmatisation. Linguistic descriptions of adverbs in currently available grammars vary substan-tially and therefore confuse learners of the language and inexperienced lexicographers1. The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatisation problems regarding adverbs in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. The treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be criti-cally evaluated, especially in terms of frequency of use and target users' needs.

Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, LEMMATISATION, ADVERBS, INFORMATION RETRIEV-AL, ELECTRONIC DICTIONARY, MACROSTRUCTURE, MICROSTRUCTURE, CROSS-REFER-ENCING, MEDIOSTRUCTURE, DICTIONARY, AFRICAN LANGUAGES, BACK MATTER, NORTHERN SOTHO

Opsomming: Die lemmatisering van bywoorde in Noord-Sotho. Tot dusver het Noord-Sotho metaleksikograwe hulle aandag bepaal by lemmatiseringsprobleme ten opsigte van die sogenaamde primêre woordkategorieë, naamlik naamwoorde en werkwoorde. Vergelyk byvoorbeeld, Prinsloo en De Schryver (1999) en Prinsloo en Gouws (1996). Geen aandag is gegee aan die lemmatisering van bywoorde nie. Laasgenoemde word deur Ziervogel en Mokgokong (1975: 72, Inleiding) as 'n "sekondêre rededeel" beskou. Die bewerking van bywoorde in Noord-Sotho woordeboeke word bederf deur inkonsekwenthede soos weglatings uit die makrostruktuur, onvol-doende en inkonsekwente etikettering, minderwaardige bewerking in die mikrostruktuur, onder-benutting van die mediostruktuur en buitetekste, en vertoon 'n gebrek aan 'n strategie vir seleksie van items vir lemmatisering. Taalkundige beskrywings van bywoorde in tans beskikbare gramma-tikas verskil grootliks en verwar dus aanleerders van die taal en onervare leksikograwe.2 Die doel van hierdie artikel is om oplossings aan die hand te doen vir die lemmatiseringsprobleme rakende bywoorde in Noord-Sotho en gidsinskrywings voor te stel vir papier- en elektroniese woordeboeke wat as modelle vir toekomstige woordeboeke kan dien. Die bewerking van bywoorde in Noord-Sotho woordeboeke sal ook krities geëvalueer word, veral ten opsigte van gebruiksfrekwensie en teikengebruikers se behoeftes.

Sleutelwoorde: LEKSIKOGRAFIE, LEMMATISERING, BYWOORDE, INLIGTINGSONT-SLUITING, ELEKTRONIESE WOORDEBOEK, MAKROSTRUKTUUR, MIKROSTRUKTUUR, KRUISVERWYSING, MEDIOSTRUKTUUR, WOORDEBOEK, AFRIKATALE, AGTERWERK, NOORD-SOTHO


Keywords


LEXICOGRAPHY; LEMMATISATION; ADVERBS; INFORMATION RETRIEV-AL; ELECTRONIC DICTIONARY; MACROSTRUCTURE; MICROSTRUCTURE; CROSS-REFER-ENCING; MEDIOSTRUCTURE; DICTIONARY; AFRICAN LANGUAGES; BACK MATTER; NORTHERN SOTHO

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5788/13-0-720

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ISSN 2224-0039 (online); ISSN 1684-4904 (print)

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