Borrowing and Dictionary Compilation: The Case of the Indigenous South African Languages

  • Munzhedzi James Mafela Department of African Languages, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa
Keywords: BORROWING, DICTIONARY COMPILATION, INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES, LEXICON, MORPHEME, VOCABULARY, DEVELOPING LANGUAGES, LOAN WORDS, TERMINOLOGY, ETYMOLOGY, LEXICOGRAPHY

Abstract

ABSTRACT: Borrowing occurs when a language adds a word from another language to its own lexicon. Languages in neighbouring regions often borrow from each other. In South Africa, there are over nine indigenous languages, in addition to Afrikaans and English, all of which coexist. In their coexistence they borrow from one another. African language dictionaries reveal that these languages have borrowed a great deal from Afrikaans and English. However, one would expect these dictionaries to reflect some borrowing from other indigenous languages; on the contrary, they include very few such words. Although, one encounters many words from indigenous languages being used by other African languages in their spoken language and literary works, these are not included in dictionaries. This article seeks to highlight factors contributing to the failure to include words borrowed from other indigenous languages in African language dictionaries.OPSOMMING: Ontlening en woordeboeksamestelling: Die geval van inheemse Suid-Afrikaanse tale. Ontlening vind plaas wanneer 'n taal 'n woord uit 'n ander taal by sy eie leksikon voeg. Tale in aangrensende streke leen dikwels van mekaar. Daar is meer as nege inheemse tale in Suid-Afrika, bo en behalwe Afrikaans en Engels, wat saam bestaan. In hulle naasbestaan leen hulle van mekaar. Afrikataal-woordeboeke getuig daarvan dat hierdie tale heelwat uit Afrikaans en Engels geleen het. Daar sou egter verwag kon word dat hierdie woordeboeke sal getuig van ontlening uit ander inheemse tale; in teendeel, hulle sluit baie min van sulke woorde in. Alhoewel baie woorde van inheemse tale in ander Afrikatale gebruik word in die gesproke taal en letterkundige werke, is hierdie woorde nie in die woordeboeke opgeneem nie. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die faktore uit te lig wat bydra tot die versuim om leenwoorde van ander inheemse tale in die Afrikataal-woordeboeke op te neem.Sleutelwoorde: ONTLENING, WOORDEBOEKSAMESTELLING, INHEEMSE TALE, LEKSIKON, MORFEEM, WOORDESKAT, ONTWIKKELENDE TALE, LEENWOORDE, TERMINOLOGIE, ETIMOLOGIE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE
Published
2011-10-20
Section
Lexikonotas/Lexiconotes