A Lexicographic Approach to Language Policy and Recommendations for Future Dictionaries

Sven Tarp, Rufus H. Gouws

Abstract


Abstract: Language policy prevails at different levels and its formulation typically results in a prescriptive presentation of data. In their dictionaries, lexicographers have to respond to the decisions of language policy makers. In this regard dictionaries can adhere to a strict prescriptive policy by including only the prescribed forms. Dictionaries can also give a descriptive account of language use without making any recommendations or claims of correctness. Thirdly, dictionaries can be proscriptive by recommending certain forms, even if such a recommendation goes against the prescribed forms. This article offers an overview of different levels of language policy and the principles of prescription, description and proscription. Examples are given to illustrate certain lexicographic applications of prescription. It is emphasised that access to relevant data is important to dictionary users. Consequently the lexicographic application of proscription is discussed as a viable alternative to prescription. It is suggested that proscription, in its different possible applications, can lead to a lexicographic presentation that benefits the user and that contributes to the satisfaction of the functions of a given dictionary.

Keywords: ACCESS, COGNITIVE FUNCTION, COMPLEMENTARY PROSCRIPTION,DESCRIPTION, DIRECT PRESCRIPTION, DIRECT PROSCRIPTION, DOMAIN-SPECIFICLANGUAGE POLICY, INDIRECT PRESCRIPTION, INDIRECT PROSCRIPTION, LANGUAGEPOLICY, LEVELS OF LANGUAGE POLICY, LEXICOGRAPHIC FUNCTIONS, NATIONALLANGUAGE POLICY, PRESCRIPTION, PROSCRIPTION, SINGLE PROSCRIPTION, TERMINOLOGICALLANGUAGE POLICY, TEXT PRODUCTION, TEXT RECEPTION, VARIANTS

Opsomming: 'n Leksikografiese benadering tot taalbeleid en aanbevelingsvir toekomstige woordeboeke. Taalbeleid kom op verskillende vlakke voor en tipieserwyslei die formulering daarvan tot 'n preskriptiewe aanbieding van data. Leksikograwe moet inhulle woordeboeke reageer op die besluite van taalbeleidmakers. In hierdie verband kan woordeboekebly by 'n streng preskriptiewe beleid deur slegs die goedgekeurde vorme in te sluit. Woordeboekekan ook 'n deskriptiewe verslag van taalgebruik gee sonder om aanbevelings of korrektheidsaansprakete maak. Derdens kan woordeboeke proskriptief wees deur bepaalde vorme aan tebeveel, selfs al is so 'n aanbeveling in stryd met die voorgeskrewe vorme. Hierdie artikel bied 'noorsig oor verskillende vlakke van taalbeleid en die beginsels van preskripsie, deskripsie enproskripsie. Voorbeelde word gegee om sekere leksikografiese toepassings van preskripsie toe telig. Daar word beklemtoon dat toegang tot relevante data belangrik vir woordeboekgebruikers is.Gevolglik word die leksikografiese toepassing van proskripsie bespreek as 'n uitvoerbare alternatieftot preskripsie. Daar word aan die hand gedoen dat proskripsie, in sy verskillende toepassingsmoontlikhede,tot 'n leksikografiese aanbieding kan lei wat die gebruiker bevoordeel en watbydra om aan die funksies van die betrokke woordeboek te voldoen. Sleutelwoorde: DESKRIPSIE, DIREKTE PRESKRIPSIE, DIREKTE PROSKRIPSIE,DOMEIN-SPESIFIEKE TAALBELEID, ENKELPROSKRIPSIE, INDIREKTE PRESKRIPSIE, INDIREKTEPROSKRIPSIE, KOGNITIEWE FUNKSIE, KOMPLEMENTÊRE PROSKRIPSIE, LEKSIKOGRAFIESEFUNKSIES, NASIONALE TAALBELEID, PRESKRIPSIE, PROSKRIPSIE, TAALBELEID,TEKSPRODUKSIE, TEKSRESEPSIE, TERMINOLOGIESE TAALBELEID, TOEGANG,VARIANTE, VLAKKE VAN TAALBELEID


Keywords


ACCESS; COGNITIVE FUNCTION; COMPLEMENTARY PROSCRIPTION;DESCRIPTION; DIRECT PRESCRIPTION; DIRECT PROSCRIPTION; DOMAIN-SPECIFICLANGUAGE POLICY; INDIRECT PRESCRIPTION; INDIRECT PROSCRIPTION; LANGUAGEPOLICY; LEVELS OF LANGUAGE POLICY; LEXICOGRAPHIC FUNCTIONS

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5788/18-0-486

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ISSN 2224-0039 (online); ISSN 1684-4904 (print)

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